United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ)

11 August 1993 - 16 January 1995
Military personnel

The Portuguese colony of Mozambique became independent on 25 June 1975 and the former freedom movement Frelimo took over the reins of government. The economy collapsed, however, after the exodus of hundreds of thousands of Portuguese, who had formed the upper and middle classes of colonial society.

Liberation movements

The situation was exacerbated by Frelimo’s radical Marxist-Leninist policies. Backed by South Africa, Renamo, one of the liberation movements which had not joined forces with Frelimo, opposed the new government and managed to seize large areas of the interior.


By the end of the 1980s, there were signs of a turnaround. Because of Mozambique’s economic bankruptcy, which had become irreversible in the 2nd half of the decade, Frelimo opted for the introduction of a market economy and a multi-party democracy. In 1988, Frelimo and Renamo engaged in peace talks which were to put an end to the seemingly endless civil war. These talks resulted in a General Peace Accord on 4 October 1992.